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Healthy vision
What an ill eye sees?
Vision disorders
Ochorenia sklovca a sietnice UVEA

Diseases of the vitreous body and retina

The retina is an important anatomical part of the eye, which ensures the processing of visual perceptions thanks to its light sensitive cells. Diseases of the vitreous body are closely linked to diseases of the retina, since they are neighbouring tissues. Not treating these problems can lead to serious damage to your vision.

What’s the problem?

Ochorenie sietnice

The retina is a thin layer in the inner part of the eye. It is composed of blood vessels and nerve fibres.
It is covered in photoreceptor cells which capture the light. They send information to the brain via the optic nerve. The site of the clearest vision, the so-called yellow spot can also be found on the retina. When the retina is healthy and untouched, we can see clearly.

The most frequent diseases of the retina

are those which occur on the yellow spot (macular hole, epiretinal membrane) or cause bleeding or closure of the retina’s arteries and veins. They are also often caused by accidents, changes to the retina linked to diabetes (proliferative diabetic retinopathy) or retinal detachment.


The vitreous body is the jelly-like filling of the eye, mainly consisting of water, which helps maintain its shape.
On the inside, it is connected to the retina, and any damage to it can also weaken the retina.
Diseases of the retina and vitreous body are linked, and they require particular attention.
Late diagnosis and treatment can cause irreversible damage to the sight and for this reason, symptoms must be recognised as early as possible.

The most frequent diseases of the vitreous body

are long-lasting dense opacities (particularly in diabetic patients), bleeding into the vitreous body, infections, grave changes to the vitreous body in premature children or foreign bodies in this part of the eye.

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What happens during surgery?

Most frequent treatment method
Ochorenie sklovca

The pars plana victrecomy (PPV) surgical procedure is used for the treatment of diseases of the retina or vitreous body
Its objective is to improve visual function, or preserve it. PPV is used, for example, to remove a vitreous haemorrhage (frequent in the case of diabetic retinopathy) or a vitreous body contributing to retinal detachment.
PPV is also used in the case of serious damage to the retina or vitreous body following accidents.
PPV is performed under local anaesthetic, which is less taxing for the body and enables the doctor to communicate with the patient during the operation and immediately afterwards.
The surgeon enters the eye via three micro-entry points.

Further treatment options

There are cases when the retina can also be operated on using an external procedure.
Here, a foam seal is applied to the white of the eye, causing the retina to reattach itself.
If the cause of the retinal detachment is a tear in the upper part of the eye, the application of gas into the eye can also be used to reattach it. The pressure this causes fixes the tear to the bottom part. By freezing this zone, we can ensure that the retina remains fixed even once the gas has been absorbed.

Ochorenie sklovca
  • The procedure is performed under a local anaesthetic
  • The PPV operation itself takes 30 to 90 minutes, depending on the extent of the damage to the vitreous body and retina.
  • In total, you will spend 3 to 4 hours in our clinic on the day of the surgery
  • It takes approximately one month for the eye to heal

Post-operative care

The operated eye will be covered with a sterile bandage until the first check-up, which takes place the following day
Around one hour after the surgery, you may go home, but we recommend you have somebody to accompany you and take you home.
For the first days following the procedure, you should stay at home, rest and refrain from exerting your eyes.
On the day of the first check-up, the doctor informs the patient of the subsequent post-operative care based on an examination of the area and a diagnosis of the operation.
In general, the recovery period takes approximately one month; in more complicated cases (e.g. retinal detachment), it may take longer.

Our team for the treatment of diseases of the vitreous body and retina

Our experienced staff will care for your eyes as if they were their own.

  • MUDr. Rastislav Vida
    MUDr. Rastislav Vida
  • MUDr. Peter Žiak, PhD.
    MUDr. Peter Žiak, PhD.
  • MUDr. Viola Lešková
    MUDr. Viola Lešková
  • MUDr. Monika Fedorová
    MUDr. Monika Fedorová

    Equipment and instruments

    • Operačný mikroskop ZEISS Lumera
      Surgical microscope ZEISS Lumera

      Surgical microscope ZEISS Lumera

      Operačný mikroskop ZEISS Lumera

      At present the best surgical microscope for eye micro-surgery in the world. In the operating theatre, a unique 3D HD stereoscopic system is also installed with the microscope, enabling transmission of the operations, their recording and imaging in 3D HD (three-dimensionally). This system is unique in Europe and was specially developed for the needs of the UVEA Mediklinik eye clinic.

    • Navigačný systém Callisto Eye
      Callisto Eye navigation system

      Callisto Eye navigation system

      Navigačný systém Callisto Eye

      Callisto Eye is a unique eye monitoring system. It was the first to be installed in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and right in the UVEA Mediklinik eye clinic in Martin. For patients, it is an irreplaceable guarantee of safety and precision, thanks to its live transfer of localisation marks into the surgeon’s microscope during intraocular operations, such as cataract operations or ceratoplastic surgery. The Callisto eye navigation system is capable of monitoring and adapting to eye movements in real time during the operation.

      Constellation phacoemulsification device

      Constellation phacoemulsification device


      This is a multifunctional surgical device which enables us to perform operations on the anterior and posterior eye segment. We use it for the emulsification of the intraocular lens or for operations of the vitreous body and retina, even in the most complicated cases. The emulsification of an opaque or clear intraocular lens takes place with the use of a very low ultrasound energy, thus leading to a minimal traumatisation to eye structures during the operation.

      The device is equipped with

      A torso mode of phacoemulsification

      Integrated xenon light source

      High-speed vitrectomy system

      Integrated endolaser

    • ZEISS Visucam 500
      Funduskamera Visucam 500

      Funduskamera Visucam 500

      ZEISS Visucam 500

      The camera VISUCAM 500 with its 24-megapixel sensor creates brilliant, detail-rich images which are an effective help in the diagnostics and monitoring of a wide range of eye diseases: from glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy through to age-related macular degeneration (ARMD).
      The advantage of the Visucam camera is the high definition imaging of the retina and its wide range of imaging regimes

      Cirrus HD coherent tomograph

      Cirrus HD coherent tomograph


      At the UVEA Mediklinik, we have the Cirrus coherent tomograph which is one of the most modern, highly useful examination and imaging device aimed at the detailed examination of posterior and anterior eye structures such as the retina, optic nerve and cornea. We use it for rapid and simple diagnostics before most eye procedures. Thanks to its perfect optics, the Cirrus HD-OCT also offers our doctors highly professional analyses and graphical imaging of the results obtained. As a result, doctors can monitor the development of a wide range of eye diseases.

    • Cryomatic MK II
      Cryomatic MK II

      Cryomatic MK II

      Cryomatic MK II

      This is a new generation of cryosurgical device by Keeler, which stands out for its high reliability. This device is mainly used for operations of the posterior eye segment such as retinal tears. The device is equipped with a microprocessor which electronically controls the freezing and defrosting cycle.

      By freezing the affected spot, we can ensure that the affected part of the retina remains firmly fixed. The device works with CO2 or N2O freezing medium.

      Is surgery right for you?

      To help you find your way around, we have prepared a brief overview of surgeries available for different types of refractory disorders or diseases. Find out which type of surgery is best for you.

      Price list

      On an individual basis (the health insurance company only reimburses the procedure in specific, medically-indicated cases)

      To help you find your way around, we have prepared a brief overview of surgeries available for different types of refractory disorders or diseases. Find out which type of surgery is best for you.

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